Green Planet Blues Instructor ResourcesTeaching Materials for Green Planet Blues: Critical Perspectives on Global Environmental Politics by Ken Conca and Geoffrey D. Dabelko
“Green Planet Blues remains the only indispensable global environmental politics reader. It presents key readings that capture the major differences in thinking on critical issues in global environmental politics … This is a book that has stood the test of time, and it remains an invaluable guide to past and present debates in global environmental politics.”
—Jon Barnett, University of Melbourne, Australia
About Green Planet Blues
Revised and updated throughout, this unique anthology examines global environmental politics from a range of perspectives—contemporary and classic, activist and scholarly—and reflects the voices of the powerless and powerful. Seventeen new readings discuss:
- climate justice
- environmental peacebuilding
- land grabs
- corporate environmentalism
- climate adaptation
- disaster risk
- the future of global environmental politics in the wake of the “Rio+20” global summit of 2012
This book stresses the underlying questions of power, interests, authority, and legitimacy that shape environmental debates, and it provides readers with a global range of perspectives on the critical challenges facing the planet and its people.
This website is designed to enhance the content of Green Planet Blues and help to engage professors and students alike. If you have any suggestions on how to improve the book or the online resources, please contact Westview Press at Westview.Promotion@hbgusa.com.
September 29, 2014
The Ohio University Compass interviewed the authors about the fifth edition–read the review here.
In this short video, Geoff Dabelko discusses the fourth edition of Green Planet Blues with his coeditor Ken Conca.
Geoff and Ken discuss the three paradigms that comprise the final three sections of the book: sustainability, security, and justice.
Follow this link to access the (ECSP) Environmental Change and Security Program‘s YouTube feed for fascinating videos on global environmental politics.
|Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations||UN specialized agency that works on food security, natural resource management, agricultural development, forests and fisheries.||fao.org|
|Global Environment Facility||Funding mechanism for global environment-development initiatives. Created at the 1992 Earth Summit and jointly operated by the World Bank, UNDP and UNEP.||thegef.org|
|Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change||International body established by UNEP and WMO in 1988 “to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts.” Its periodic assessment reports are seen by many as authoritative statements of the state of international scientific consensus on climate change causes and consequences.||ipcc.ch|
|IPCC Fifth Assessment Report||ipcc.ch/report/ar5|
|International Union for the Conservation of Nature||Bills itself as “the world’s oldest and largest environmental organization,” with members from over 160 countries. IUCN is a mixed-membership body whose members include government agencies and national and international non-governmental organizations.||iucn.org|
|United Nations Development Programme||Focal point for UN development activities. UNDP has four strategic priorities: poverty reduction and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; democratic governance; crisis prevention and recovery ; and environment and energy for sustainable development||undp.org|
|UNDP Environment and Energy programs||undp.org|
|United Nations Environment Programme||“The voice of the environment” within the UN system, UNEP is tasked with being a “catalyst, advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable development of the global environment.” Created in the wake of the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm).||unep.org|
|United Nations Environment Assembly||UNEA is a the new governing council of UNEP, created as part of the Rio+20 reforms, which sought to give UNEP stronger and higher-level political representation in the UN system.||unep.org/unea/en|
|UNEP Global Environment Outlook 5||UNEP’s most recent comprehensive overview report on global and regional environment and development issues. Assesses progress on leading international environmental goals. This site includes a data portal, data compendium, videos, policy briefs, and electronic references.||unep.org/geo|
|UNEP Disasters and Conflicts||Useful information on environmental consequences of violent conflict and natural disasters around the world, as well as response strategies.||unep.org/disastersandconflicts|
|Group of 77||Organized voting bloc of developing countries in the United Nations. Frequently coordinates positions and makes policy pronouncement on issues of interest to member states, including environmental actions taken or proposed within the UN system.||g77.org|
|Non-aligned Movement||An outgrowth of a 1955 conference among newly independent nations, the Non-aligned Movement was created to help newly independent states steer clear of the polarizing influences of the Cold War. Like the G-77, it seeks to represent the interests of developing countries and frequently attempts to coordinate the positions of its members on issues of global concern such as the environment.||nam.gov.za|
|World Bank||Multilateral development organization that seeks “to end extreme poverty within a generation and boost shared prosperity” by providing development funding and policy advice. Frequent target of critics who question the development impacts, environmental effects, and equity implications of its projects.||worldbank.org|
|World Bank’s Environment home page||worldbank.org/en/topic/environment|
|World Trade Organization||Multilateral organization that promotes trade liberalization and rule-based behavior on trade issues. Frequently rules on whether national environmental rules and standards constitute violations of international trade agreements.||wto.org|
|WTO “trade and environment” page||wto.org/english/tratop_e|
INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TREATY REGIMES
|Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal||basel.int|
|Convention on Biological Diversity||cbd.int|
|Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety(protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity)||bch.cbd.int/protocol|
|Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution||unece.org/env/lrtap|
|Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora||cites.org|
|International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling||iwc.int/convention|
|Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat||ramsar.org|
|Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade||www.pic.int|
|Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants||chm.pops.int|
|United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea||un.org/depts/los|
|United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification||unccd.int|
|United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change||unfccc.int|
|Vienna Convention for Protection of the Ozone Layer…and…Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer||montreal-protocol.org|
|Bellona Foundation (Norway)||Norwegian NGO that gathers information on industrial and nuclear contamination, with a particular focus on Russia.||bellona.org|
|Brazilian Institute of Social and Economic Analyses (Brazil)||IBASE is a Brazilian social-movement organization that promotes information campaigns and social activism on a wide range of issues.||ibase.br|
|Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (USA)||Non-profit, non-partisan organization dedicated to providing “credible information, straight answers and innovative solutions in the effort to address global climate change.”||c2es.org|
|Center for International Environmental Law (USA)||Stresses the uses of international law for environmental protection.||ciel.org|
|Centre for Science and Environment (India)||Conducts public-interest research, advocacy, and lobbying on a wide range of environmental issues, both domestically within India and internationally.||cseindia.org|
|Climate Action Network||Global network of NGOs working on climate change issues.||climatenetwork.org|
|Earth Policy Institute (USA)||Focused on economy-ecology linkages.||earth-policy.org|
|ECOPEACE/Friends of the Earth Middle East||An organization linking Jordanian, Palestinian and Israeli environmentalists to promote regional environmental cooperation and environmental peacebuilding.||foeme.org|
|Environment Liaison Centre International||Nairobi-based organization serves as a clearinghouse for a variety of environmental organizations worldwide, with particular emphasis on the global South.||elci.org|
|Friends of the Earth International||Umbrella organization linking local and national groups in 74 countries. Emphasis on sustainability, human rights, and economic and environmental justice issues.||foei.org|
|Geneva Environment Network||A network of international environmental organizations maintaining a presence in Geneva, Switzerland, for proximity to Un activities.||genevaenvironmentnetwork.org|
|Global Witness||NGO that works on issues related to natural resources, human rights abuses, and violent conflict.||globalwitness.org|
|Green Cross International||Advocacy and policy research institute founded by former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. “The mission of Green Cross is to help ensure a just, sustainable and secure future for all by fostering a value shift and cultivating a new sense of global interdependence and shared responsibility in humanity’s relationship with nature.”||gcint.org|
|Global Greens||Network of the world’s green political parties.||globalgreens.org|
|The Greens (Germany)||Green alliance in the German parliament.||gruene-bundestag.de|
|Greenpeace International||Independent green organization founded in 1971 and with a presence in 40 countries around the world. Historically, its repertoire has emphasized issue-advocacy campaigns, direct action, and media strategies.||greenpeace.org/international|
|Indigenous Environmental Network||A coalition of grassroots groups that provides information on environmental problems faced by indigenous communities.||ienearth.org|
|International Rivers||Advocates for the protection of rivers and for the rights of river-dependent communities.||internationalrivers.org|
|One World||On-line civil society network that disseminates news from social justice organizations from around the world. “Empathy in action.”||oneworld.net|
|Pesticide Action Network||PAN is a network of local organizations in North America working on issues related to pesticide pollution, health and safety, and sustainable agriculture.||panna.org|
|Rainforest Action Network||Network organization advocating for forest protection and human rights.||ran.org|
|Redefining Progress (USA)||Emphasis on the transition to a sustainable economy||rprogress.org|
|Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe||REC provides training and information for NGOs and links to other sites on Central and Eastern Europe.||rec.org|
|Slow Food||International organization aiming “to protect the pleasures of the table from the homogenization of modern fast food and life.”||slowfood.com|
|Third World Network||Think tank and advocacy organization focused on the global South, and emphasizing economics, development and global social justice issues.||twnside.org.sg|
|Women’s Environment and Development Organization||WEDO seeks to increase the power of women worldwide as policymakers at all levels in governments, institutions and forums to achieve economic and social justice, a healthy and peaceful planet, and human rights for all.||wedo.org|
|World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)||Formerly known as the World Wildlife Fund (the name still used by its U.S. chapter).||panda.org|
|Worldwatch Institute (USA)||An independent research organization committed to environmentally sustainable and socially just society. Numerous publications and data compendia.||worldwatch.org|
RESEARCH CENTERS, POLICY INSTITUTES AND DATABASES
|Center for Economic and Social Studies on the Environment , Université Libre de Bruxelles—“Sustainable Development” page||Vast array of links related to sustainability topics.||ulb.ac.be|
|Center for International Earth Science Information Network||Wide range of useful data sources on international environmental problems and agreements.||ciesin.org|
|Ecolex environmental law database||Environmental law information service operated jointly by the UN Environment Program, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and the World Conservation Union/IUCN. Includes a searchable database of national legislation and international treaties.||ecolex.org|
|Environmental Change and Security Program, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars||ECSP explores “the connections among environmental, health, and population dynamics and their links to conflict, human insecurity, and foreign policy. ECSP brings together scholars, policymakers, the media, and practitioners through events, research, publications, multimedia content (audio and video), and our daily blog, New Security Beat.”||wilsoncenter.org|
|Michigan State University: Environmental Justice Guide||Reference works and research gateways related to or useful for the study of environmental justice issues.||libguides.lib.msu.edu|
|International Association for the Study of the Commons||Society of scholars who study the commons and common-property resources.||iasc-commons.org|
|International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development||Non-partisan organization that seeks to “influence the international trade system such that it advances the goal of sustainable development” by “empowering stakeholders in trade policy through information, networking, dialogue, well-targeted research, and capacity building.”||ictsd.org|
|International Institute for Sustainable Development||IISD operates the Earth Negotiations Bulletin, which monitors international negotiations and global conferences.||iisd.org|
|International Society for Ecological Economics||Useful links to databases on environment, population, environmental treaties, and research tools.||isecoeco.org|
|Linkages Update||Bi-weekly newsletter from the International Institute for Sustainable Development that provides news, information, and analysis from international environmental and development negotiations including meetings, media reports, publications, and online resources.||iisd.ca/linkages-update|
|Population Reference Bureau||Data and analysis on population trends and their implications.||prb.org|
|World Resources Institute||Washington-based environmental think-tank providing wide array of data and resources on environmental issues around the world through its EarthTrends portal.||wri.org|
MEDIA OUTLETS AND NEWS SOURCES
|Earth Negotiations Bulletin||Summaries and documentation related to international environmental conferences, negotiating sessions, and other events.||iisd.ca/enbvol|
|EcoEarth.Info||Compilation of daily environmental headlines from major media organizations around the world.||ecoearth.info|
|Ensia||Ensia is a magazine showcasing environmental solutions in action produced by the Institute on the Environment at the University of Minnesota.||ensia.com|
|Environmental Health News||Daily environmental health news from Environmental Health Sciences, “a not-for-profit organization founded in 2002 to help increase public understanding of emerging scientific links between environmental exposures and human health.”||environmentalhealthnews.org|
|Environmental News Network||Describes its mission as “to inform, educate, enable and create a platform for global environmental action” and its readership as “top environmental leaders from government, business and educators, as well as a broad spectrum of ‘intellectually curious’ citizens.”||enn.com|
|Environmental News Service||Daily international wire service for environmental news worldwide.||ens-newswire.com|
|Grist Magazine||Environmental news, advocacy and humor.||grist.org|
|People & the Planet||Focused on linkages among poverty, consumption, health, and the environment. Searchable archive of news stories.||peopleandplanet.com|
|Planet Ark||Daily world environment news and photos from Reuters news service.||planetark.com|
|Science Communication Network||Private non-profit organization “dedicated to encouraging environmental public health scientists and medical practitioners to contribute to public discussions about their work through the media and thereby elevate the quality and quantity of environmental health reporting.”||sciencecommunicationnetwork.org|
|Society of Environmental Journalists “resources and tools” page||Hundreds of links on topics ranging from acid rain to zoos.||sej.org|
|UN News Center||Daily news covering the United Nations and global affairs.||un.org/news|
More than four decades of systematic study of global environmental politics have produced a vast literature on the topic. The following list is not meant to be comprehensive, but suggests several places to get started.
Part One: The Debate Begins
Carson, Rachel. Silent Spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962.
Chatterjee, Pratap and Matthias Finger. The Earth Brokers: Power, Politics and World Development. London: Routledge, 1994.
Daly, Herman E. Steady-State Economics: The Economics of Biophysical Equilibrium and Moral Growth. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1977.
Dauvergne, Peter, ed. Handbook of Global Environmental Politics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2012. Second edition.
Dolšak, Nives and Elinor Ostrom. The Commons in the New Millennium: Challenges and Adaptation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.
Falk, Richard. This Endangered Planet: Prospects and Proposals for Human Survival. New York: Random House, 1971.
Feeny, David, Fikret Berkes, Bonnie J. McCay and James M. Acheson. “The Tragedy of the Commons: Twenty-two Years Later.” Human Ecology 18 no. 1 (1990): 1-19.
Hardin, Garrett, and John Baden, eds. Managing the Commons. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1977.
Meadows, Donella H., Dennis L. Meadows, and Jørgen Randers. Beyond the Limits: Confronting Global Collapse, Envisioning a Sustainable Future. Post Mills, VT: Chelsea Green Pub., 1992.
Mitchell, Ronald, “International Environment.” In Thomas Risse, Beth Simmons, and Walter Carlsnaes, eds., Handbook of International Relations. Sage, 2002, pp. 500-516.
Nordhaus, W. D. “World Dynamics: Measurement without Data.” Economic Journal 83, no. 332 (December 1973):1156–1183.
Ostrom, Elinor. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Ophuls, William. Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1976.
Paterson, Matthew, “Theoretical Perspectives on International Environmental Politics.” In Michele M. Betsill, Kathryn Hochstetler, and Dimitris Stevis, eds., Palgrave Advances in International Environmental Politics. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2006, pp. 54-81.
Sprout, Harold, and Margaret Sprout. Toward a Politics of the Planet Earth. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1971.
Tolba, Mostafa K., Osama A. El-Kholy, E. El-Hinnawi, M. W. Holdgate, D. F. McMichael, and R. E. Munn, eds. The World Environment 1972–1992: Two Decades of Challenge. London: Chapman & Hall, 1992.
Turner, B. L. II, et al. The Earth as Transformed by Human Action. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Ward, Barbara, and Rene Dubos. Only One Earth. New York: W. W. Norton, 1972.
Zürn, Michael. “The Rise of International Environmental Politics: A Review of Current Research.” World Politics 50:4 (July 1998): 617-649.Simon, Julian, and Herman Kahn. The Resourceful Earth. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1984.
Part Two: Ecology and the Structure of the International System
J. Samuel Barkin and George E. Shambaugh, eds. Anarchy and the Environment. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999.
Biermann, Frank and Klaus Dingwerth. “Global Environmental Change and the Nation State.” Global Environmental Politics 4:1 (Feb 2004): 1-22.
Biermann, Frank and Philipp Pattberg, eds. Global Environmental Governance Reconsidered. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012.
Clark, Ann Marie, Elisabeth J. Friedman, and Kathryn Hochstetler. “The Sovereign Limits of Global Civil Society.” World Politics 51 (October 1998): 1-35.
Environmental Movements: Local, National, and Global. Special edition of Environmental Politics vol. 8 no. 1 (Spring 1999).
Fox, Jonathan A. and L. David Brown. The Struggle For Accountability: The World Bank, NGOS, and Grassroots Movements. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
French, Hilary. Vanishing Borders: Protecting the Planet in the Age of Globalization. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.
Hawken, Paul. Blessed Unrest: How the Largest Movement in the World Came into Being, and Why No One Saw It Coming. New York: Penguin, 2008.
Keck, Margaret, and Katherine Sikkink. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks and International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.
Khagram, Sanjeev. Dams and Development: Transnational Power Struggles for Water and Power. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004.
Khagram, Sanjeev, James Riker, and Kathryn Sikkink, eds. Restructuring World Politics: Transnational Social Movements, Networks, and Norms.Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002.
Kuehls, Thom. Beyond Sovereign Territory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.
Lipschutz, Ronnie D., with Judith Mayer. Global Civil Society and Global Environmental Governance: The Politics of Nature from Place to Planet. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1996.
Lipschutz, Ronnie D., and Ken Conca, eds. The State and Social Power in Global Environmental Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Litfin, Karen. “Sovereignty in World Ecopolitics.” Mershon International Studies Review 41:2 (November 1997):167-204.
Maathai, Wangari. The Greenbelt Movement: Sharing the Approach and the Experience. Lantern Books, 2003.
Meyer, John W., David John Frank, Ann Hironaka, Evan Schofer, and Nancy Brandon Tuma. “The Structuring of a World Environmental Regime, 1870-1990,” International Organization 51:4 (Autumn 1997): 623-651.
Najam, Adil. “Developing Countries and Global Environmental Governance: From Contestation to Participation and Engagement,” International Environmental Agreements 5 (2005): 303-321.
Najam, Adil. “Why Environmental Politics Looks Different from the South.” In Peter Dauvergne, ed., Handbook of Global Environmental Politics.Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2005, pp. 111-126.
Najam, Adil, Ioli Christopoulou, and William R. Moomaw. “The Emergent ‘System’ of Global Environmental Governance.” Global Environmental Politics 4:4 (November 2004): 23-35.
Newell, Peter. Globalization and the Environment: Capitalism, Ecology and Power. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2012.
Paterson, Matthew. Understanding Global Environmental Politics: Domination, Accumulation, Resistance. London: MacMillan, 2002.
Princen, Thomas, and Matthias Finger, eds. Environmental NGOs in World Politics: Linking the Local and the Global. London: Routledge, 1994.
Schreurs, Miranda, and Elizabeth Economy, eds., The Internationalization of Environmental Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Taylor, Bron, ed. Ecological Resistance Movements: The Global Emergence of Radical and Popular Environmentalism. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1995.
Wapner, Paul. Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1996.
Wapner, Paul. Living through the End of Nature: The Future of American Environmentalism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010.
Wapner, Paul. “Politics Beyond the State: Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics,” World Politics 47 (1995): 311-340.
Part Three: Institutions of Global Environmental Governance
Biermann, Frank. “Reforming Global Environmental Governance: The Case for a United Nations Environment Organization (UNEO).” Report to the Stakeholder Forum’s Program on Sustainable Development Governance, February 2011.
Bodansky, Daniel, Jutta Brunee and Ellen Hey. The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Breitmeier, Helmut, Oran R. Young and Michael Zürn. Analyzing International Environmental Regimes: From Case Study to Database. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
Clapp, Jennifer. Toxic Exports: The Transfer of Hazardous Wastes from Rich to Poor Countries. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001.
Conca, Ken. Governing Water: Contentious Transnational Politics and Global Institution Building. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
Dauvergne, Peter. Shadows in the Forest: Japan and the Politics of Timber in Southeast Asia. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997.
DeSombre, Elizabeth R. and J. Samuel Barkin. “Turtles and Trade: The WTO’s Acceptance of Environmental Trade Restrictions,” Global Environmental Politics 2 (2002): 12-18.
Dubash, Navroz K., Mairi Dupar, Smitu Kothari, and Tundu Lissu. A Watershed in Global Governance? An Independent Assessment of the World Commission on Dams. Washington: World Resources Institute, 2001.
Esty, Daniel C. Greening the GATT: Trade, Environment and the Future. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 1994.
Grubb, Michael, Matthias Koch, Abby Munson, Francis Sullivan, and Koy Thomson. The Earth Summit Agreements: A Guide and Assessment. London: Earthscan Publications, 1993.
Haas, Peter M., Saving the Mediterranean: The Politics of International Environmental Bhagwati, Jagdish, “The Case for Free Trade” and Herman E. Daly, “The Perils of Free Trade.” Scientific American, November 1993.
Haas, Peter, Robert O. Keohane, and Marc A. Levy. Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993.
Hovden, Eivind. “As if Nature Doesn’t Matter: Ecology, Regime Theory and International Relations.” Environmental Politics vol. 8 no. 2 (Summer 1999): 50-74.
Hunter, David, James Salzman and Durwood Zaelke. International Environmental Law and Policy. Foundation Press, 4th edition 2010.
Jasanoff, Sheila, The Fifth Branch: Science Advisers as Policymakers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.
Kutting, Gabriella. Environment, Society and International Relations: Towards More Effective International Environmental Agreements. London: Routledge, 2000.
Litfin, Karen. Ozone Discourses. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
Middleton, Neil and Phil O’Keefe. Rio Plus Ten: Politics, Poverty and the Environment. London: Pluto Press, 2003.
Miles, Edward L. and Arild Underdal, eds. Explaining Environmental Regime Effectiveness: Confronting Theory with Evidence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.
Miller, Marian A. L. The Third World in Global Environmental Politics. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1995.
Mitchell, Ronald B., Intentional Oil Pollution at Sea: Environmental Policy and Treaty Compliance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994.
Mitchell, Ronald B. “International Environmental Agreements: A Survey of Their Features, Formation, and Effects.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 28 (2003): 429–61.
Oberthür, Sebastian and Thomas Gehring, eds. Institutional Interaction in Global Environmental Governance: Synergy and Conflict among International and EU Policies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
O’Neill, Kate. Waste Trading Among Rich Nations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000.
Cooperation. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
Ottaway, Marina. “Corporatism Goes Global.” Global Governance, vol. 7 no. 3 (July-September 2001.
Siebenhüner, Bernd. “Learning in International Organizations in Global Environmental Governance.” Global Environmental Politics vol. 8 no. 4 (November 2008): 92-116.
Stokke, Olav. Disaggregating International Regimes: A New Approach to Evaluation and Comparison. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012.
Susskind, Lawrence E. Environmental Diplomacy: Negotiating More Effective Global Agreements. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Underdal, Arild, ed., The International Politics of Environmental Management. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.
United Nations Environment Programme. Guide for Negotiators of Multilateral Environmental Agreements. Nairobi: UNEP, 2006.
Victor, David G., Kal Raustiala, and Eugene B. Skolnikoff, eds. The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments: Theory and Practice. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1998.
Weiss, Edith Brown and Harold K. Jacobson, eds. Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1998.
Young, Oran R. Institutional Dynamics: Emergent Patterns in International Environmental Governance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010.
Part Four: The Sustainability Debate
Barnett, John and Saffron O’Neill. ”Maladaptation.” Global Environmental Change 20 (2010): 211-213.
Bernstein, Steven. The Compromise of Liberal Environmentalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
Costanza, Robert, ed. Ecological Economics: The Science and Management of Sustainability. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.
Daly, Herman E. and John B. Cobb Jr. For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future.Boston: Beacon Press, 1989.
Doyle, Timothy. “Sustainable Development and Agenda 21: The Secular Bible of Global Free Markets and Pluralist Democracy.” Third World Quarterly19:4 (1998): 771-786.
The Ecologist. Whose Common Future? Reclaiming the Commons. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1993.
Ecological Modernization around the World: Perspectives and Critical Debates. Special edition of Environmental Politics vol. 9 no. 1 (Spring 2000).
Garcia-Johnson, Ronie. Exporting Environmentalism: U.S. Multinational Chemical Corporations in Brazil and Mexico. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000.
Goodman, David, and Michael Redclift, eds. Environment and Development in Latin America: The Politics of Sustainability. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1991.
Leiserowitz, Anthony A., Robert W. Kates, and Thomas M. Parris. “Do Global Attitudes and Behaviors Support Sustainable Development?” Environmentvol. 47 no. 9 (November 2005): 22-38.
Levy, David L. and Peter J. Newell. The Business of Global Environmental Governance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.
MacNeill, Jim, Pieter Winsemius, and Taizo Yakushiji, Beyond Interdependence: The Meshing of the World’s Economy and the Earth’s Ecology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Mazmanian, Daniel A. and Michael E. Kraft. Toward Sustainable Communities: Transition and Transformations in Environmental Policy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999.
Nagpal, Tanvi and Camilla Foltz, eds. Choosing our Future: Visions of a Sustainable World. Washington: World Resources Institute, 1995.
Neefjes, Koos. Environments and Livelihoods: Strategies for Sustainability. Oxfam, 2000.
Pirages, Dennis C., ed. Building Sustainable Societies: A Blueprint for a Post-Industrial World. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1996.
Princen, Thomas, Michael Maniates, and Ken Conca, eds. Confronting Consumption. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2002.
Redclift, Michael. Sustainable Development: Exploring the Contradictions. London: Methuen, 1987.
Rees, William E., Phil Testemale, and Mathis Wackernagle. Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. Gabriola Island, British Columbia: New Society Publishers, 1995.
Rich, Bruce. Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment, and the Crisis of Development. Boston: Beacon Press, 1994.
Sachs, Wolfgang, Reinhard Loske, and Manfred Linz. Greening the North: A Post-industrial Blueprint for Ecology and Equity. London: Zed Books, 1998.
Schmidheiny, Stephan, with the Business Council for Sustainable Development. Changing Course: A Global Business Perspective on Development and the Environment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992.
Sen, Amartya. Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books, 1999.
Speth, James Gustave. The Bridge at the Edge of the World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.
Thiele, Leslie Paul. Sustainability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2013.
Wackernagel, Mathis, and William Rees. Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1995.
World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Vision 2050: The New Agenda for Business. WBCSD, 2010.
Part Five: From Ecological Conflict to Environmental Security?
Baechler, Günther. “Environmental Transformation and Violence: A Synthesis,” Environmental Change and Security Project Report 4 (1998).
Barnett, Jon. The Meaning of Environmental Security: Ecological Politics and Policy in the New Security Era. London: Zed Books, 2003.
Collier, Paul and Anke Hoeffler. “Resource Rents, Governance, and Conflict,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (2005): 625-633.
Conca, Ken and Geoffrey D. Dabelko, eds. Environmental Peacemaking. Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press and Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.
Dabelko, Geoffrey D. and P. J. Simmons. “Environment and Security: Core Ideas and U.S. Government Initiatives,” The SAIS Review 17 (Winter-Spring 1997):127–146.
De Soysa, Indra. “Ecoviolence: Shriking Pie or Honey Pot?” Global Environmental Politics vol. 2 no. 4 (November 2002): 1-35.
Diehl, Paul F. and Nils Petter Gleditsch, eds. Environmental Conflict. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
Dinar, Shlomi. Beyond Resource Wars: Scarcity, Environmental Degradation, and International Cooperation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011.
Environmental Change and Security Project Report. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, annual.
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Floyd, Rita and Richard Matthew. Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues. London: Routledge, 2013.
Gleditsch, Nils Petter. Conflict and the Environment. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Academic Publishers, 1997.
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Homer-Dixon, Thomas. Environment, Scarcity, and Violence. Princeton University Press, 2001.
Kahl, Colin H. States, Scarcity, and Civil Strife in the Developing World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2008.
Käkönen, Jyrki, ed. Green Security or Militarized Environment. Aldershot, UK: Dartmouth, 1994.
Le Billon, Phillipe. “The Political Ecology of War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflict,” Political Geography 20 (2001): 561-584.
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Part Six: Ecological Justice
Adger, W. Neil, Jouni Paavola, Saleemul Huq and M. J. Mace. Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
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Bullard, Robert D. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality.
Chapin, Mac. “A Challenge to Conservationists.” World Watch vol. 17 no. 6 (November/December 2004): 17-31.
Colchester, Marcus. Justice in the Forest: Rural Livelihoods and Forest Law Enforcement. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR, 2006.
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Guha, Ramachandra. The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in the Himalayas. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
Hampson, Fen and Judith Reppy, Earthly Goods: Environmental Change and Social Justice. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996.
Hecht, Susanna, and Alexander Cockburn. The Fate of the Forest: Developers, Destroyers, and Defenders of the Amazon. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.
Keil, Roger. Political Ecology: Global and Local. Taylor & Francis, 1998.
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Merchant, Carolyn, Ecological Revolutions: Nature, Gender and Science in New England. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
Merchant, Carolyn. Radical Ecology: The Search for a Livable World. London: Routledge, 1992.
Paehlke, Robert. Democracy’s Dilemma: Environment, Social Equity, and the Global Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.
Peluso, Nancy Lee. Rich Forests, Poor People: Resource Control and Resistance in Java. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
Roberts, J. Timmons and Bradley Parks. A Climate of Injustice: Global Inequality, North-South Politics, and Climate Policy: Global Environmental Accord: Strategies for Sustainability and Institutional Innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
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Sachs, Wolfgang, ed. Global Ecology: A New Arena of Political Conflict. London: Zed Books, 1993.
Shiva, Vandana, Ecology and the Politics of Survival. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1991.
Shiva, Vandana. Water Wars: Privatization, Pollution, and Profit. Boston: South End Press, 2002.
Vanderheiden, Steve. Atmospheric Justice: A Political Theory of Climate Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Warren, Karen. Ecofeminist Philosophy. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.
Discussion questions can be found in the in the “Thinking Critically” sections at the introduction to each of the book’s parts, which the authors hope will stimulate critical thought, conversation, and learning.
Part I: The Debate Begins
- How well have the essays by Meadows, Castro, and Hardin, which were all written between 1968 and 1972, withstood the test of time? Do they still provide an adequate framework for understanding and addressing global environmental problems? What aspects of their essays seem anachronistic? What aspects ring true today? Imagine what a dialogue among these thinkers would be like if they were to meet today and discuss the durability of one another’s claims.
- Contrast Castro’s claims about the environment and development with the views of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) and the essays on sustainability in Part Four. Do either the advocates or the critics of the sustainability paradigm frame the problem in the same way as Castro?
- Does the work of Ostrom and her colleagues invalidate Hardin’s central claims about the tragedy of the commons? In other words, can Hardin still be right about the larger problem even if he misread the history of the English commons, and even if exceptions to his pessimistic scenario can be found today? What do you think Hardin would say to his critics? Construct Hardin’s argument as a series of logical propositions: If Basurto and Ostrom are correct, which of Hardin’s specific claims or assumptions are most challenged, and how?
- Can we imagine effective rules governing common-pool resources on a larger scale—for example, the global atmosphere or the world’s oceans? What are the limits of scale for these forms of governance, and at what scale are these limits likely to be encountered?
- Contrast Hardin’s arguments about the need for strong command- and control governance with the essays on ecological justice in Part Six. Is the concentration of power in the hands of the state part of the problem or part of the solution? In an era in which many governments face profound skepticism and frequent crises of authority, are people likely to look to the state for solutions to environmental problems?
Part II: Ecology and the Structure of the International System
- Are the problems confronting the Brazilian state in the Amazon applicable elsewhere? Is the pattern of transformation of Brazilian sovereignty hypothesized in Conca’s essay likely to be found on a broader scale? What allows sovereignty to endure in the face of such pressures?
- Does globalization promote or inhibit international environmental cooperation? Which seems to be growing more quickly—the pressures on countries to solve problems collectively or the loss of control in an increasingly transnationalized world economy?
- Is Wangari Maathai describing a struggle similar to that experienced by Chico Mendes (Part One)? What are the constants and what are the variables? In other words, what aspects of these movements, their obstacles, and the context in which they operate are likely to be inherent in such struggles? What aspects are likely to be place-specific?
- What forces push people to mobilize politically? What gives citizen environmental activism its power? What limits its power?
- Do the cases of citizen action discussed here provide evidence for the emergence of a global civil society? Or do they describe locally grounded political struggles that have little in common beyond occasional, expedient cooperation?
Part III: Institutions of Global Environmental Governance
- When it comes to international environmental cooperation, do you think the glass is half empty or half full? Given Kanie’s description of the pros and cons of the decentralized approach to international environmental treaty formation, would it make sense to attempt to deepen and strengthen this approach, or to try something new?
- Who is a “stakeholder” in global environmental controversies? If you were constituting, say, a World Commission on Climate along the lines of the World Commission on Dams, how would you decide who should have a voice?
- Is it worth trying to reenergize broadly multilateral North-South bargaining on environment and development? Or do recent global environmental conferences with modest results mark the death of the “global summit” approach to global environmental governance and herald the need for a new approach?
- In your opinion, how will history judge the world’s progress in institutionalizing international environmental cooperation and governance in the period from the Stockholm conference (1972) to the Rio+20 summit (2012)? Imagine that you are a journalist writing about the legacy of this period from the vantage point of someone living in the year 2042. What do you imagine the first paragraph of your story would say?
Part IV: The Sustainability Debate
- In your judgment, does “sustainable development” represent a powerful synthesis of the twin needs for environmental protection and economic development? Or is it a contradiction in terms? Is sustainability compatible with a wide array of definitions of “development,” or does it narrowly limit what development can mean?
- How do you think the members of the Brundtland Commission would respond to the criticisms voiced by Lélé and Dauvergne? Would they share the optimism of the Corporate Eco Forum’s members about the “business case” for sustainability?
- Can there be a common framework for sustainability across the diverse societies of the global South? For the North as well as the South? Is a concept such as sustainability universal, or is it inherently contingent on culture?
- Are you an overconsumer? Is it accurate to say that California, or your community, is in a “state of denial”? Is it fair? How much control do you have over your consumption? What aspects of your life would have to change for you to change from overconsumer to sustainer? What are the barriers to the sort of change that Dauvergne’s critique of consumption implies?
- How can cities seeking resilience and sustainability deal with the scale problem identified by Elmqvist? Does your city’s sustainability initiatives offer an answer to that question? If not, what would such a strategy look like?
Part V: From Ecological Conflict to Environmental Security?
- What are the different strands of environmental security outlined in Dabelko’s “Uncommon Peace” essay? Why do you think some dimensions dominate today’s environmental security debates? Which issues deserve the most attention in the current debate?
- Can you think of examples that run counter to the environmental conflict argument—that is, cases where the conditions for environmentally induced violent conflict seem to exist but violence does not occur? What social institutions or other conditions are likely to influence whether violence occurs? Is the connection between environment and conflict solely a problem for the developing world?
- Which seems more likely: the “greening” of security policy or the militarization of environmental policy? Do you consider Deudney’s concerns about the mismatched tools of traditional security institutions to be well founded? Is it possible to generalize across countries in answering this question?
- Can you think of other places where the “Good Water Neighbors” peacebuilding strategy could be tried at the local level? How would you connect such cooperation to areas of conflict as a way to build trust or lessen tensions?
- Might environmental cooperation also cause environmental conflict? Can international cooperation cause the sort of violence discussed by Rajagopal? If countries in a shared river basin agree to build a dam instead of fighting over the water, is that “environmental peacebuilding” or merely a shifting of violence from interstate affairs onto local communities in the basin? Is it possible to develop strategies that work for peace on both levels at once?
- Do you think the UN Security Council is an appropriate forum for debating climate change and security links? Which of the specific arguments for or against Security Council involvement do you fi nd most persuasive, and why? What practical benefits, if any, do you think will flow from its debating climate change and security links?
Part VI: Ecological Justice
- After reading the essays in this section, are you persuaded that the environment is a social justice issue? Must there be social justice for there to be environmental protection? Are there difficult trade-off s to be made between these two values?
- Do you accept the suggestion that some types of global environmental protection impose an unfair burden on the global South? Does this mean that the resistance of many governments of the South to particular forms of international environmental protection has the effect of promoting social justice? What might the Coordinating Body for the Indigenous Peoples’ Organizations of the Amazon Basin (COICA) (Chapter 8 in Part One) have to say to the head of state of a developing country who claimed that primary responsibility rested with the global North, as Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia stated at the 1992 Earth Summit? How might the latter respond?
- Are the views of globalization in this section consistent with that of the Working Group on Development and Environment in the Americas (discussed in Part Two)? How are they similar or different?
- Contrast the picture of international environmental NGOs drawn by Peluso with the essay by Jethro Pettit in Part Two. Are Pettit’s concerns about the challenges of solidarity within the environmental movement being borne out in this case? What sorts of adjustments in social movement coalitions are required to address these concerns?
- Governments focused on the problem of climate change have spent most of their time bargaining over which countries must cut their greenhouse-gas emissions and by how much. Does a human rights analysis of the climate change problem suggest a different or expanded agenda for international negotiations? What additional responsibilities of nations, individually and collectively, should be identified?
Many students of global environmental politics find themselves discouraged by the scope of the problems and the enormity of the tasks that seem to be called for in response. This attitude, while understandable, can be a profoundly demobilizing force and can reinforce the difficulties we face in responding to environmental challenges. We all share the personal challenges of identifying positive forms of action, on scales large and small. While no one set of actions is appropriate in all cases or for all individuals, the following may give you some ideas of ways that you can make a difference.
1. Develop a global perspective and share it with others. Learn about the world and share what you learn with people in your social networks—be it family, classroom, neighborhood, social club, workplace, or community organization. An excellent place to start is with your daily newspaper. The web site newslink.org provides links to daily papers from all around the world. Bookmark several papers and take a look at them regularly. If you find important articles not reflected in your local or national media, clip them and urge your local media outlets to cover these stories regularly and in depth. To stay informed don’t rely on web-based content aggregators—even the good ones—or the mainstream media outlets in your country.
If you are feeling more ambitious and have the resources, substitute the virtual presence of electronic media for the real thing. Consider replacing your next vacation with a “reality tour” of the sort offered by Global Exchange globalexchange.org/tours and may other citizen’s organizations.
2. Green your campus. College campuses are city-scale enterprises, with thousands of students and staff consuming natural resources, generating waste, and transforming local landscapes. They are also key centers for the creation and exchange of ideas about the environment and our relationship to it. Colleges and universities are small enough that they can be changed and big enough to be well worth changing.
What sorts of sustainable improvements could be made to your campus? The Campus Ecology Program of the National Wildlife Federation (U.S.) offers ideas, resources, and worksheets for conducting a campus environmental audit. Their home page nwf.org/campusecology contains many useful suggestions for getting started. Find a professor who will sponsor a group of students in a campus audit as an independent study, service project, or organized class.
But be sure that you don’t limit your activities to the directly biophysical impacts of your campus! Why not conduct an audit of the campus’s environmental impact as an intellectual and financial institution as well? Are environmental themes central to the curriculum in English, History, Chemistry, or Engineering? Does Philosophy offer a class in environmental ethics? Where is the campus’s endowment invested? Are any green screens applied to campus investment decisions? What is the position of the Board of Trustees on fossil-fuel divestment? Does the campus staff enjoy a healthy working environment? Does the college support local green businesses in its purchasing decisions? Has your campus signed the 1990 Talloires Declaration committing it to environmental sustainability in higher education (see ulsf.org/programs_talloires for more information)?
3. Learn about opportunities to work for positive global change. The California-based nongovernmental organization Food First (also known as the Institute for Food and Development Policy) has published an excellent resource booklet called Alternatives to the Peace Corps. Now in its twelfth edition, Alternatives to the Peace Corps identifies community-based grassroots organizations working for sustainability and positive social change at scales ranging from local to global.
4. Broaden your knowledge base. We live in a time when most of the pressures on us are to specialize, in the sense of developing ever-deeper knowledge about ever-narrower topics. Such expertise has its place, but it can also blind us to the broader connections among things. If you are a college student, take advantage of the opportunity to get outside the disciplines and perspectives you know best to see the connections among things and the value of different modes of thought.
5. Redefine environmental action. Polls show that most people think of environmental action in individual and consumerist terms. Most folks define “environmental” behavior as recycling, reducing personal energy use, or purchasing cleaner products—but not in terms of supporting political candidates, joining community organizations, raising money, grassroots organizing, or campaigning for social change. By all means, do take action in the personal and consuming spheres of your life to reduce your ecological footprint. But find some time to work on the structural and political dimensions of environmental problems, in cooperation and solidarity with others. Join a community organization, a political party, a labor union, or a social movement group that is pressing for change.
Ken Conca is professor of International Relations at the School of International Service at American University. His research and teaching focus on global environmental governance, environmental peacebuilding in war-torn societies, environmental politics and policy in the United Nations system, water governance, and environmental policy analysis. He is the author/editor of several books on international environmental politics, including Governing Water, Confronting Consumption, Environmental Peacemaking, The Crisis of Global Environmental Governance, and the widely used teaching anthology Green Planet Blues. Conca is a two-time recipient of the International Studies Association’s Harold and Margaret Sprout Award for best book on international environmental affairs and a recipient of the Chadwick Alger Prize for best book in the field of International Organization. He is a member of the United Nations Environment Programme’s Expert Advisory Group on Conflict and Peacebuilding. He received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Geoffrey D. Dabelko is professor and Director of the Environmental Studies Program at the George V. Voinovich School of Leadership and Public Affairs at Ohio University in Athens, OH. His research and teaching focuses on global environmental politics, global sustainability, and linkages among climate change, natural resources, peacebuilding, and security. From 1997-2012, he served as director of the Environmental Change and Security Program, a nonpartisan policy forum on environment, population, and security issues at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. He continues to work as a senior advisor to the Wilson Center where he helps facilitate dialogue among policymakers, practitioners, and scholars grappling with the complex connections that link environment, health, population, conflict, and security. He is a member of the United Nations Environment Programme’s Expert Advisory Group on Conflict and Peacebuilding. Dabelko is co-editor of Green Planet Blues and Environmental Peacemaking and a lead author for the 5th assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Working Group II Chapter 12 on Human Security. Dabelko received his Ph.D. from the University of Maryland. He can be reached at email@example.com and @geoffdabelko on Twitter.
Part One: The Debate Begins
1. The Limits to Growth, Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jørgen Randers, and William W. Behrens III
2. Environment and Development: The Case of the Developing Countries, João Augusto de Araujo Castro
3. The Tragedy of the Commons, Garrett Hardin
4. Redefining National Security, Lester R. Brown
5. Beyond the Tragedy of the Commons, Xavier Basurto and Elinor Ostrom
6. The 1992 Earth Summit: Reflections on an Ambiguous Event, Ken Conca and Geoffrey D. Dabelko
7. Fight for the Forest, Chico Mendes (with Tony Gross)
8. Two Agendas on Amazon Development, Coordinating Body for the Indigenous Peoples’ Organizations of the Amazon Basin (COICA)
Part Two: Ecology and the Structure of the International System
9. Rethinking the Ecology-Sovereignty Debate, Ken Conca
10. Globalization and the Environment: Lessons from the Americas, Working Group on Development and Environment in the Americas
11. Nobel Lecture, Wangari Maathai
12. Climate Justice: A New Social Movement for Atmospheric Rights, Jethro Pettit
Part Three: Institutions of Global Environmental Governance
13. Governance with Multilateral Environmental Agreements: A Healthy or Ill-Equipped Fragmentation? Norichika Kanie
14. A Participatory Approach to Strategic Planning, Richard E. Bissell
15. Life after Rio, Mark Halle
16. The Rio+20 Summit and its Follow Up, Martin Khor
Part Four: The Sustainability Debate
17. Towards Sustainable Development, World Commission on Environment and Development
18. Sustainable Development: A Critical Review, Sharachchandra M. Lélé
19. The New Business Imperative: Valuing Natural Capital, Corporate Eco Forum and The Nature Conservancy
20. The Problem of Consumption, Peter Dauvergne
21. Urban Sustainability and Resilience: Why We Need to Focus on Scales, Thomas Elmqvist
Part Five: From Ecological Conflict to Environmental Security?
22. An Uncommon Peace: Environment, Development, and the Global Security Agenda, Geoffrey D. Dabelko
23. From Conflict to Peacebuilding: The Role of Natural Resources and the Environment, United Nations Environment Programme
24. The Case against Linking Environmental Degradation and National Security, Daniel Deudney
25. Environmental Peacebuilding Theory and Practice, EcoPeace/Friends of the Earth Middle East
26. The Violence of Development, Balakrishnan Rajagopal
27. Climate Change at the UN Security Council: Conceptual and Procedural Controversies, Joe Thwaites
Part Six: Ecological Justice
28. The Relationship between Climate Change and Human Rights, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
29. Gender, Disaster Risk Reduction, and Climate Change Adaptation: A Learning Companion, Oxfam
30. Coercing Conservation, Nancy Lee Peluso
31. The Real Price of Europe Going Green, Silas Kpanan’Ayoung Siakor
32. REDD: An Introduction, REDD Monitor
33. Inequality and Environmental Policy, Joseph E. Stiglitz
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