Women and Politics Classroom Resources

Instructor and Student Materials for Women and Politics, 4th Edition

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Instructor Resources

Transition Guide
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Instructor’s Manual
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Test Bank
A test bank with multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, short answer, and essay questions is available for professors who adopt Women and Politics 4th Edition for their courses on April 1st, 2017. Please fill out the request form, and a press representative will be in touch shortly to grant access.

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Student Resources

Resources for Further Study

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Chapter One

Suggested Readings

Laura Bates, Girl Up (New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 2016).

Jennifer Baumgardner and Amy Richards, Manifesta: Young Women, Feminism, and the Future (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000).

Nancy Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987).

Rory Dicker and Alison Piepmeier, eds., Catching a Wave: Reclaiming Feminism for the 21st Century (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2003).

Sady Doyle, Trainwreck: The Women We Love to Hate, Mock, and Fear…and Why (Brooklyn, NY: Melville House Publishing, 2016).

Jean Beth Elshtain, Public Man, Private Woman: Women in Social and Political Thought, 2nd ed. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981).

Mark E. Kahn, The Gendering of American Politics: Founding Mothers, Founding Fathers, and Political Patriarchy (Westport: Praeger, 1999).

Sanford Kessler and Tracie V. Reid, American Debates on Sexual Equity (New York: Bloomsbury, 2013).

Mia McKenzie, Black Girl Dangerous on Race, Queerness, Class and Gender (Oakland, Calif.: BGD Press, Inc., 2014).  

John Stuart Mill, “The Subjection of Women,” in The Feminist Papers, ed. Alice S. Rossi (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1972).

Michelle M. Nickerson, Mothers of Conservatism: Women and the Postwar Right (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012).

Carole Pateman, The Sexual Contract (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1998).

Virginia Sapiro, A Vindication of Political Virtue: The Political Theory of Mary Wollstonecraft (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992).

Ronnie Schreiber, Righting Feminism: Conservative Women and American Politics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).

Shira Tarrant, When Sex Became Gender (New York: Routledge Press, 2006).

Andi Zeisler, Feminism and Pop Culture (Berkeley, Calif.: Seal Press, 2008).

Online Resources

Blog: Black Girl Dangerous https://www.bgdblog.org.

Blog: Everyday Feminism—Intersectional Feminism for your Everyday Life http://everydayfeminism.com/.

Blog: Feministing http://feministing.com/.

Site where you can take a quiz to determine where you are on the Feminist Perspectives Scale, a measure of feminist and gender attitudes: http://personality-testing.info/tests/FPS.php.

A list and summary of major legal equality cases: http://www.criminaljusticedegreesguide.com/features/10-landmark-court-cases-in-womens-rights.html.


MAKERS: The largest video collection of women’s stories http://www.makers.com/.

Film: Girl Rising: One Girls with Courage is a Revolution (2013).

Film: MAKERS: Women Who Make America (2012, 2014).

Chapter Two

Suggested Readings

Beverly Baines and Ruth Rubio-Marin, eds, The Gender of Constitutional Jurisprudence (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

Susan D. Becker, The Origins of the Equal Rights Amendment: American Feminism Between the Wars (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981).

Carol Ellen Dubois, Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women’s Movement in America 1848–1869 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978).

Eleanor Flexnor and Ellen Fitzpatrick, Century of Struggle: The Woman’s Rights Movement in the United States, enlarged edition (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996).

Kristin A. Goss, The Paradox of Gender Equality: How American Women’s Groups Gained and Lost their Public Voice (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan press, 2013).

Helen Irving, Gender and the Constitution: Equity and Agency in Comparative Constitutional Design (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

Jane Mansbridge, Why We Lost the ERA (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986).

Susan Marshall, Splintered Sisterhood: Gender and Class in the Campaign Against Woman Suffrage (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997).

Jessica Neuwirth, Equal Means Equal: Why the Time for an Equal Rights Amendment is Now (New York: The New Press, 2015).

Nell Irvin Painter, Sojourner Truth: A Life, A Symbol (New York: Norton, 1996).

Marjorie J. Spruill, Divided We Stand: The Battle Over Women’s Rights and Family Values That Polarized American Politics (New York: Bloomsbury, 2017).

Doris Stevens, Jailed for Freedom: American Women Win the Vote, ed. Carol O’Hare (1920; reprint, Troutdale, Ore.: New Sage Press, 1995).

Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850–1920 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998).

Online Resources

Eagle Forum website: http://eagleforum.org.

The Equal Rights Amendment: http://www.equalrightsamendment.org/.  

The National Women’s Hall of Fame: http://www.greatwomen.org.

National Women’s History Project: http://www.nwhp.org.

National Woman’s Party website: http://nationalwomansparty.org.

Places Where Women Made History: http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/pwwmh/.

Women’s Rights National Historical Park: http://www.nps.gov/wori/wrnhp.htm.


Online video on Alice Paul: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JxdHe-55rqA.

Film: Anita: Speaking Truth to Power (2013).

Film: Ida B Wells: A Passion for Justice (1990).

Film: Iron Jawed Angels (2004).

Film: Not for Ourselves Alone (1999).

Film: One Woman, One Vote (1995).

Film: Suffragette (2015).

Chapter Three

Suggested Readings

Kevin Corder and Christine Wolbrecht, Counting Women’s Ballots: Female Voters from Suffrage Through the New Deal (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016).

Melissa Deckman, Tea Party women: Mama Grizzlies, Grassroots Leaders, and the Changing Face of the American Right (New York: New York University Press, 2016).

Jo Freeman, A Room at a Time: How Women Entered Party Politics (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000).

Catherine E. Rymph, Republican Women: Feminism and Conservatism from Suffrage Through the Rise of the New Right (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006).

Virginia Sapiro, The Political Integration of Women (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983).

Theda Skocpol and Vanessa Williams, The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

Lois Duke Whitaker, ed., Voting the Gender Gap (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008).

Online Resources

Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University, http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/.

Feminist Majority: http://www.feminist.org.

League of Women Voters: http://lwv.org/.  

National Women’s Political Caucus: http://www.nwpc.org.

Pew Research on Gender: http://www.pewresearch.org/topics/gender/.

Blog: The Political Voices of Women: http://politicsanew.com/.


Film: The Speeches of Famous Women (1995).

Film: What’s your point, honey? (It’s not about one…) (2008).

Chapter Four

Suggested Readings

Deborah Jones Brooks, He Runs, She Runs: Why Gender Stereotypes Do Not Harm Women Candidates (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013).

Barbara Burrell, Gender in Campaigns for the U.S. House of Representatives (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2015).

Susan J. Carroll and Richard L. Fox, eds., Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

Kelly Dittmar, Navigating Gendered Terrain: Stereotypes and Strategy in Political Campaigns (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2015).

Kathleen Dolan, When Does Gender Matter? Women Candidates & Gender Stereotypes in American Elections (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).

Ellen Fitzpatrick, The Highest Glass Ceiling: Women’s Quest for the American Presidency (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2016).

Danny Hayes and Jennifer L. Lawless, Women on the Run: Gender, Media, and Political Campaigns in a Polarized Era (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016).

Lia Larson, Skirting Tradition: Women in Politics Speak to the Next Generation (Hollis, N.H.: Hollis Publishing Company, 2004).

Jennifer L. Lawless and Richard L. Fox, It Takes a Candidate: Why Women Don’t Run for Office (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

Ellen R. Malcolm, When Women Win: EMILY’S LIST and the Rise of Women in American Politics (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2016).

Susan Morrison, Thirty Ways of Looking at Hillary: Women Writers Reflect on the Candidate and What Her Campaign Meant (New York: Harper Perennial, 2008).

Kira Sanbonmatsu, Where Women Run: Gender and Party in the American States (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006).

Amy Sewell and Heather Ogilvie, She’s Out There: Essays by 35 Young Women Who Aspire to Lead the Nation: The Next Generation of Presidential Candidates (New York: Lifetime Media, 2009).

Online Resources

EMILY’s List: http://www.emilyslist.org.

“First but not Last: The Women Who Have Run for President,” a Google Arts & Culture exhibit, created by the National Women’s History Museum: https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/u/0/exhibit/zAJim2pJexmPJw.

Her Hat Was In the Ring!: an ongoing project that collects information about women who have run for office: http://www.herhatwasinthering.org/.

Inter-Parliamentary Union’s Women in National Parliaments: http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm.

The National Coalition of 100 Black Women: http://www.ncbw.org.

National Congress of Black Women: https://www.nationalcongressbw.org/.

National Federation of Republican Women: http://www.nfrw.org.

National Hispana Leadership Institute: http://www.nhli.org.

National Women’s Political Caucus: http://www.nwpc.org.

Pew Research on Gender and Leadership: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/05/19/americans-views-of-women-as-political-leaders-differ-by-gender/.

She Should Run: http://www.sheshouldrun.org/.

The Women’s Campaign School at Yale: http://www.wcsyale.org/.

Women’s National Democratic Club: http://www.democraticwoman.org.

Women Under Forty PAC: http://wufpac.org.


Film: 14 Women: They’re Senators (2008).

Film: Ladies First: Saudi Arabia’s Female Candidates (2016).

Film: Miss Representation (2012).

Film: Running in High Heels (2005).

Chapter Five

Suggested Readings

Irin Carmon and Shana Knizhnik, Notorious RBG: The Life and Times of Ruth Bader Ginsburg (New York, NY: Harper Collins, 2015).

Sonia R. Garcia, Valerie Martinez-Ebers, Irasema Coronado, Sharon A. Navarro, and Patricia A. Jaramillo, Politicas: Latina Public Officials in Texas (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2008).

Farida Jalalzai, Shattered, Cracked, or Firmly Intact? Women and the Executive Glass Ceiling Worldwide (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).

Sally J. Kenney, Gender & Justice: Why Women in the Judiciary Really Matter (New York: Routledge, 2013).

Barbara Lee, Renegade for Peace & Justice (Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2008).

Tracy L. Osborn, How Women Represent Women: Political Parties, Gender, and Representation in the State Legislatures (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

Michele L. Swers, The Difference Women Make: The Policy Impact of Women in Congress (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002).

Michele L. Swers, Women in the Club: Gender and Policymaking in the Senate (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013).

Kayla Williams, Love My Rifle More Than You: Young and Female in the U.S. Army (New York: Norton, 2006).

Online Resources

Center for American Women and Politics: http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/.

Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues: http://www.womenspolicy.org/our-work/the-womens-caucus/.

Executive Women in Government: http://www.execwomeningov.org/.

Girls, Inc.: http://www.girlsinc.org/.  

Institute for Women’s Leadership: http://womensleadership.com.

Institute for Women’s Policy Research: https://iwpr.org/.  

Ms. Foundation for Women: https://forwomen.org/.

National Council for Research on Women: http://www.ncrw.org/.

National Women’s Law Center: http://www.nwlc.org/.

Service Women’s Action Network: http://www.servicewomen.org.

Women in Leadership Positions around the World: http://www.guide2womenleaders.com/Current-Women-Leaders.htm.

Women’s Policy, Inc.: http://www.womenspolicy.org/.  

Blog: Feminist Law Professors: http://feministlawprofessors.com/.


Film: The Invisible War (sexual assault in the military) (2012).

Film: Lioness (2008).

Film: The Legacy of Barbara Jordan: Four Speeches (1996).

Film: Shirley Chisholm ’72: Unbought and Unbossed (2005).

Chapter Six

Suggested Readings

Catherine Hill and Elena Silva, Drawing the Line: Sexual Harassment on Campus (Washington, DC: AAUW Educational Foundation, 2006).

Jennifer L. Lawless and Richard L. Fox, Running From Office: Why Young Americans are Turned Off to Politics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015).

Scott Long, From Security to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2001).

Christina Hoff Sommers, The War Against Boys: How Misguided Policies are Harming Our Young Men (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013).

Elileen Pollack, The Only Woman in the Room: Why Science is Still a Boys’ Club (Boston: Beacon Press, 2016).

Nina Tassler, ed., What I Told My Daughter: Lessons from Leaders on Raising the Next Generation of Empowered Women (New York: Atria Books, 2016).

Yu Xe and Kimberlee Shauman, Women in Science: Career Processes and Outcomes (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005).

Online Resources

American Association of University Women: http://www.aauw.org.

Girls, Inc. http://www.girlsinc.com.

History of Women in Education: https://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/education/introduction.html.

Jeanette Rankin Foundation http://www.rankinfoundation.org/.

Know Your IX https://www.knowyourix.org/.

National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education http://www.ncwge.org/.

National Women’s Studies Association http://www.nwsa.org/.

Title IX and Women’s Sports: https://www.womenssportsfoundation.org/advocate/title-ix-issues/.

UN Women and Education Statistics: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/gender/chapter3/chapter3.html.

Women’s National Law Center, “Check it Out: Is the Playing Field Level for Women and Girls at your School?” (equity checklist: https://nwlc.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Checkitout.pdf).

Blog: Title IX Blog http://title-ix.blogspot.com/.


Film: The Hunting Ground (2015), http://thehuntinggroundfilm.com/.

Chapter Seven

Suggested Readings

Linda Babcock and Sara Laschever, Women Don’t Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003).

Lisa Bowden and Shannon Cain, eds., Powder: Writing by Women in the Ranks from Vietnam to Iraq (Tuscon, Ariz.: Kore Press, 2008).

Barbara Ehrenreich and Arlie Russell Hochschild, Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy (New York: Henry Holt, 2002).

Arlie Russell Hochschild, The Outsourced Self: What Happens When We Pay Others to Live Our Lives for Us (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2012).

Augusto Lopez-Claros and Saadia Zahidi, Women’s Empowerment: Measuring the Global Gender Gap (Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum, 2005).

Pamela Stone, Opting Out? Why Women Really Quit Careers and Head Home (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007).

Joan Williams, Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to Do About It (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Novel: Allison Pearson, I Don’t Know How She Does It: The Life of Kate Reddy, Working Mother (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002).

Novel: Meg Wolitzer, The Ten Year Nap: A Novel (New York: Riverhead Books, 2008).

Online Resources

AFL-CIO: http://www.aflcio.org/Issues/Civil-and-Workplace-Rights/Working-Women.

Catalyst: http://www.catalystwomen.org.

Center for WorkLife Law: http://www.worklifelaw.org/.

The Glass Hammer: http://www.theglasshammer.com/.

Institute for Women’s Policy Research: https://iwpr.org/.

National Committee on Pay Equity: http://www.pay-equity.org/.

National Partnership for Women and Families: http://www.nationalpartnership.org.

NEW: Nontraditional Employment for Women: http://www.new-nyc.org/.

Pew research on paid paternal leave by country: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/09/26/u-s-lacks-mandated-paid-parental-leave/.

Pew research on the wage gap and intersectionality: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/01/racial-gender-wage-gaps-persist-in-u-s-despite-some-progress/.

Service Women’s Action Network (SWAN): http://www.servicewomen.org.

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: http://www.eeoc.gov/.

WAGE: www.wageproject.org.

Wage and earnings data: https://www.bls.gov/cps/earnings.htm.

Wage equality by country: https://www.oecd.org/gender/data/genderwagegap.htm.

Blog: Feminist Law Professors: http://feministlawprofessors.com/.


Film: Equity (2016)

Film: Fast Food Women (1991).

Film: Lioness (2008).

Chapter Eight

Suggested Readings

Carlos A. Ball, ed., After Marriage Equality: The Future of LGBT Rights (New York: New York University Press, 2016).

Susan J. Douglas and Meredith W. Michaels, The Mommy Myth: The Idealization of Motherhood and How it Has Undermined Women (New York: Free Press, 2004).

Kathryn Edin and Luke Shaefer, $2.00 a Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America (New York: Mariner Books, 2016).

Jeanne Flavin, Our Bodies, Our Crimes: The Policing of Women’s Reproduction in America (New York: New York University Press, 2009).

Michelle Goldberg, The Means of Reproduction: Sex, Power, and the Future of the World. (New York: Penguin Press, 2009).

Susan B. Hansen, The Politics of Sex: Public Opinion, Parties, and Presidential Elections (New York: Routledge, 2014).

Kathryn Joyce, Quiverfull: Inside the Christian Patriarchy Movement (Boston: Beacon Press, 2009).

Susie Orbach, Bodies (New York: Picador, 2009).

Elizabeth Palley and Corey S. Shdaimah, In Our Hands: The Struggle for U.S. Child Care Policy (New York: New York University Press, 2014).

Melody Rose, Safe, Legal, and Unavailable? Abortion Politics in the United States (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007).

Rickie Solinger, Beggars and Choosers: How the Politics of Choice Shapes Adoption, Abortion, and Welfare in the United States (New York: Hill and Wang, 2001).

Rebecca Traister, All the Single Ladies: Unmarried Women and the Rise of an Independent Nation (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2016).

Judith Warner, Perfect Madness: Motherhood in the Age of Anxiety (New York: Riverhead Books, 2005).

Susan Wicklund, This Common Secret (New York: Public Affairs, 2007).

Laura R. Woliver, The Political Geographies of Pregnancy (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002).

Jonathan Zimmerman, Too Hot to Handle: A Global History of Sex Education (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015).

Novel: Margaret Atwood, The Handmaid’s Tale (New York: Random House, 1998).

Online Resources

ACLU Reproductive Rights: http://www.aclu.org/issues/reproduct/hmrr.html.

All Above All: http://allaboveall.org/.

Center for Reproductive Rights: https://www.reproductiverights.org/.

Child Care across states: https://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/data-mine/2015/10/08/these-charts-show-the-insane-cost-of-child-care.

Domestic Violence Helpline: http://www.thehotline.org/help/help-for-survivors/.

End Rape on Campus: http://endrapeoncampus.org.

Feminists for Life: http://www.feministsforlife.org/.

Guttmacher Institute: https://www.guttmacher.org/.

NARAL: https://www.prochoiceamerica.org/.

National Right to Life: http://www.nrlc.org.

Planned Parenthood: https://www.plannedparenthood.org.

Women and Tech – Paid Maternity Leave: http://womenandtech.com/infographic-paid-maternity-leave/.


Film: If These Walls Could Talk (1996).

Film: Very Young Girls (2007).

Film: One Wedding and a Revolution: The Day San Francisco City Hall Said “I Do” (2004).

Film: When Abortion Was Illegal: Untold Stories (1992).

TV series: The Handmaid’s Tale (2017) https://www.hulu.com/the-handmaids-tale.

Chapter Nine

Suggested Readings

Carolyn B. Maloney, Rumors of our Progress Have Been Greatly Exaggerated (New York: Modern Times Books, 2008).

Eileen McDonagh, The Motherless State: Women’s Political Leadership and American Democracy (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2009).

Deborah R. Rhode, What Women Want: An Agenda for the Women’s Movement (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).

Marie C. Wilson, Closing the Leadership Gap: Why Women Can and Must Help Run the World (New York: Viking, 2004).

Online Resources

AWID: https://www.awid.org.

Equality Now: http://www.equalitynow.org/take-action.

Global Urban: http://www.globalurban.org/GUDMag06Vol2Iss1/Grown,%20Gupta,%20&%20Kes.htm.

Planned Parenthood: https://www.plannedparenthood.org.

She Should Run: http://www.sheshouldrun.org/.

World Economic Forum – Global Gender Gap: http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2015/.

Student Discussion Questions

Download all Student Discussion Questions (PDF, 85 KB)

Chapter One

  1. What does equality for women mean to you? What do you think it means for most of society?
  2. Beside the physical differences, what are some differences between men and women?
  3. What is the cause of any true differences between men and women: nature or nurture?
  4. What does feminism mean to you?
  5. What are some sources of the negative connotations for feminism?
  6. Do women need men to express support for feminism and equality for women?
  7. Is gender determined solely by sex?
  8. Are gender-neutral laws enough to promote equality or do women need protective laws in order to achieve full equality?
  9. Should women be given the opportunity to fully take leadership of most positions for several years, in order to test assumptions about gender, sex, and ability? Why or why not?
  10. If you identify as a feminist, what “brand” of feminist are you? What about that specific brand appeals to you?

Chapter Two

  1. What is a “woman’s issue”?
  2. The suffrage movement grew out of the abolition movement and the 15th Amendment made that relationship complicated. Why do you think women gave up the franchise at that time?
  3. Women had to wait 50 years to get the right to vote, after freed male slaves. What does that say about gender and race relations at that time?
  4. What would you do if you were not allowed to vote due to some immutable characteristic?
  5. Why would some women not want the right to vote?
  6. Is radical behavior needed to secure a right?
  7. Women who fought against the ERA cited the “extra responsibilities” that could come with the passage of the amendment. Should women who do not want all of the responsibilities of US citizens lose their citizenship?
  8. Since the 14th Amendment guarantees all citizens equal protection of the laws, do you agree with Justice Scalia that it does not grant protections explicitly to women?
  9. Are the reasons presented for not ratifying the ERA—it could allow for same-sex marriages, could allow women to be drafted or serve in combat—still valid arguments today? Why or why not?
  10. Should the ERA be ratified? Why or why not?

Chapter Three

  1. Why do more women than men vote today? And why are they not as politically active in other areas?
  2. Why do women tend to vote for the Democratic Party?
  3. What are some reasons for why African American women may vote more than African American men?
  4. The book makes an interesting point that if the Republican Party has a problem attracting women voters, then the Democratic Party has the same problem with men. Why do you think this is not an issue that gets a lot of media attention?
  5. Is the charge that the Republican Party is waging a “war on women” valid? Why or why not?
  6. What political ambitions, if any, do you have? Discuss this question in small groups of men and women. Are there any differences in the answers given between men and women?
  7. Do female candidates get treated differently? What types of evidence have you seen for that answer in the recent elections?
  8. Can conservative women be feminists? Why or why not?
  9. What has been the role of political organizations and political parties in promoting women candidates and electing women?
  10. Do you think women “owe it” to female candidates to vote for them?

Chapter Four

  1. What structural factors in the US electoral system have impacted and possibly impeded women in seeking and winning office?
  2. What gender stereotypes have you seen in recent campaigns or in recent discussions of politicians?
  3. Do you think gender stereotypes are present in all occupational and social areas? Why or why not? And if yes, how can they be diminished or ended?
  4. Is the criteria for leadership based on male traits, female traits, or is it neutral?
  5. Do women face a steeper hill when it comes to running for office? Why or why not? What factors contribute to the difficult
  6. How is a woman candidate’s experience on the campaign trail different from a male candidate’s experience? How can those differences be mitigated?
  7. Why have a lot of democracies had a female executive, but not the United States?
  8. Should the US adopt a quota system for its legislatures? Why or why not?
  9. What are some advantages to female leadership?
  10. What are some of the strategies of various organizations helping women run for office? How can their work help realize a more equal number of men and women in office?

Chapter Five

  1. Which type of representation is best for the public and the functioning of government? Explain your answer.
  2. What would happen if women achieved parity in government?
  3. What could the government do to increase the number of women in office at all levels?
  4. In what ways, if any, does gender impact the conducting of legislative business?
  5. What benefits—both substantive and symbolic—do having women in local offices bring?
  6. Is it fair to minority women that they have to represent three constituencies—their race/ethnicity, their gender, and their actual district? Why or why not?
  7. Do you think having a woman president would be different than having a male president? If so, in what ways?
  8. Do you think that Justices Ginsburg and Sotomayor are right—do women have a different life experience than men cannot understand?
  9. Should women serve in combat positions in the military? Why or why not?
  10. Should women be required to register for the draft? Why or why not?

Chapter Six

  1. How did girls/women in the United States gain access to education?
  2. What is the difference between sexual harassment and gender harassment? Give some examples of each.
  3. Why are women’s sports not as lucrative for schools? Does it matter? Should public universities be allowed to profit from sports?
  4. Is it possible to attain a “bias free curriculum” in schools? Why or why not?
  5. If Title IX were more stringently applied at the high school level, what effect would it have on women when they go to college?
  6. Why are women less likely to go into STEM careers?
  7. Is there as much backlash against men who go into traditionally female careers as women face when they go into traditionally male careers?
  8. Why do you think women underreport sexual assaults on campus? Why do men also underreport?
  9. Some have recently remarked (including Betsy DeVos, the Secretary of Education), that Title IX requirements in both campus sexual assault and sports are no longer necessary. Do you agree? Why or why not?
  10. What is the long term impact of education on women’s pursuit of equality?

Chapter Seven

  1. Explain what the bona fide occupational qualification is. Can you think of an example (not in your book) that could be considered a BFOQ?
  2. Should there be paid leave for both new mothers and fathers in the US? Why or why not?
  3. Explain the “reasonableness standard.” Why did feminists have a problem with the “reasonable person” standard?
  4. In what ways are women still attempting to overcome economic inequality?
  5. Why is there such controversy over the existence of the wage gap?
  6. Is it time for affirmative action to end or would inequalities emerge again if it ended? Explain your answer.
  7. Are there jobs that only men or only women can (or should) perform? Explain your answer.
  8. Explain the concept of comparable worth. Do you think this would be a more equitable way of calculating
  9. Under what circumstances would you envision a change in the gender patterns in the labor force?
  10. Do you expect Social Security to still be viable when you retire? (Is there a difference in opinion between male and female students? Is so, discuss.)

Chapter Eight

  1. Why is family law so hard to regulate?
  2. Why does divorce often affect women disproportionately?
  3. Why is there such broad differences in other developed countries with the US when it comes to family leave?
  4. Why was the US able to pay for quality child care during costly wars, but not in times of relative peace?
  5. Evaluate the need for a Universal Basic Income.
  6. Should employer’s private religious beliefs be allowed to dictate company policy? Why or why not?
  7. What would happen if the US Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade?
  8. Describe the ways in which states have intervened in the lives of pregnant women in the name of fetal protection.
  9. Explain the statement “domestic violence sits at the intersection of the private and public spheres.”
  10. Should the US put a limit on the number of children citizens may have?

Chapter Nine

  1. In practice, what are the key differences between the legal equality and fairness doctrines?
  2. What, in your opinion, is the single most important area to focus activities for women’s equality? Explain.
  3. Why has a woman never been elected as President? How long do you think it will take?
  4. What, in your opinion, is the best action to take to get women to run? Why?
  5. Why is it difficult to compromise on the “second shift” of additional responsibility for women at home?
  6. What, in your opinion, is the most important action for women to take to ensure equality in marriage and family? Explain.
  7. Explain why poverty is a continuing issue that affects women more.
  8. What, in your opinion, is the most important action for women to ensure economic equality? Explain.

Academic Disciplines and Courses

  • African Studies
  • Art and Architecture
  • Education
  • European Studies
  • Philosophy
  • Psychology
  • Religion
  • Science and Advanced Math