Language, Culture, and Society

An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology


James Stanlaw, Nobuko Adachi, and Zdenek Salzmann

Seventh Edition • July 25, 2017 • 464 pages


Print ISBN: 9780813350608 • $52.00 USD$67.50 CAN

Ebook ISBN: 9780813350738 • $35.99 USD$45.99 CAN

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Why should we study language? How does communication define our identities? And, how is this all changing in the digital world? Since 1993, many have turned to Language, Culture, and Society for its comprehensive coverage of all critical aspects of linguistic anthropology. This seventh edition carries on the legacy while addressing new pressing and exciting challenges of the 21st century, such as issues of language and power, language ideology, and linguistic diasporas. Chapters on gender, race, and class also examine how language helps create-and is created by-identity.

The seventh edition includes expanded discussions of online communication, social media outlets, and the ways the Internet is changing how we interact. Coverage of race and ethnicity has also been expanded to include Latin- and Asian-American contributions to English vernacular. Enhanced and updated pedagogical features include learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter, discussion and comprehension questions at the end of each chapter, and a glossary for easy reference, making this an essential text for any course covering the evolution of language.


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James Stanlaw is professor of anthropology at Illinois State University. His areas of interest include linguistic anthropology, cognitive anthropology, language and culture contact, and Japan and Southeast Asia. He is the author of Japanese English: Language and Culture Contact.

Nobuko Adachi is associate professor of anthropology at Illinois State University. Her interests include transnationalism, ethnohistory, and ethnic studies. She is the author of Ethnic Capital in a Japanese Brazilian Commune: Child of Nature.

Zdenek Salzmann is professor emeritus of anthropology at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. A specialist in Native American languages and folklore, he is the author, with his wife Joy, of Native Americans of the Southwest.

Preface

1. Introducing Linguistic Anthropology
Learning Objectives
Why Should We Study Language? Language in Daily Life
Modern Myths Concerning Languages
A Brief History of Anthropology
Anthropology, Linguistics, and Linguistic Anthropology
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Project
Objective Study Questions
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

2. Methods of Linguistic Anthropology
Learning Objectives
Contrasting Linguistics with Linguistic Anthropology
Three Strains of Linguistic Anthropology, and More: Theoretical and Historical Perspectives
The Fieldwork Component, and the Components of Fieldwork
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Objective Study Questions
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

3. The “Nuts and Bolts” of Linguistic Anthropology I: Language Is Sound
Learning Objectives
Anthropologists Notice Language
The Anatomy and Physiology of Speech
Articulation of Speech Sounds
From Phones to Phonemes
Prosodic Features
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Objective Study Questions
Problems
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

4. The “Nuts and Bolts” of Linguistic Anthropology II: Structure of Words and Sentences
Learning Objectives
Combining Sounds into Larger Formal and Meaningful Units
Morphemes and Allomorphs
Morphological Processes
Morphophonemics
Showing Grammatical Relationships: Inflections Versus Word Order
Chomsky and Transformational-​Generative Grammar
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Objective Study Questions
Problems
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

5. Communicating Nonverbally
Learning Objectives
Paralinguistics
Kinesics
Proxemics
Sign Languages
Writing
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Project
Objective Study Questions
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

6. The Development and Evolution of Language: Language Birth, Language Growth, and Language Death
Learning Objectives
Communication and Its Channels
Communication Among Nonhuman Primates
When Does a Communication System Become Language?
Design Features of Language
Language as an Evolutionary Product
Monogenesis Versus Polygenesis
The Life and Death of Languages
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Projects
Objective Study Questions
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

7. Acquiring and Using Language(s): Life with First Languages, Second Languages, and More
Learning Objectives
The First Steps of Language Acquisition in Childhood
Some Theories of Language Acquisition
Language and the Brain
Bilingual and Multilingual Brains
Code-​Switching, Code-​Mixing, and Diglossia
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Projects
Objective Study Questions
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

8. Language Through Time
Learning Objectives
How Languages Are Classified
Internal and External Changes
How and Why Sound Changes Occur
Reconstructing Protolanguages
Reconstructing the Ancestral Homeland
Time Perspective in Culture
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Objective Study Questions
Problems
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

9. Languages in Variation and Languages in Contact
Learning Objectives
Idiolects
Dialects
Styles
Language Contact
Pidgins
From Pidgins to Creoles
Language Contact in the Contemporary World
The World of Languages
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Projects
Objective Study Questions
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

10. The Ethnography of Communication
Learning Objectives
Speech Community and Related Concepts
Units of Speech Behavior
Components of Communication
Recent Trends in the Ethnography of Speaking
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Objective Study Questions
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

11. Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization: Meaning and Language in the Conceptual World
Learning Objectives
The Scope of Semantics
Concepts, Words, and Categories
The Rise and (Relative) Fall of Ethnoscience
Meaning in Discourse and Conversation
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Projects
Objective Study Questions
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

12. Language, Culture, and Thought
Learning Objectives
The Double-​Edged Sword of the Sapir-​Whorf Hypothesis: Linguistic Determinism and Linguistic Relativity
The Sapir-​Whorf Hypothesis Reconsidered
Color Nomenclature and Other Challenges to Linguistic Relativity
Theoretical Alternatives to Linguistic Relativity
Future Tests of Linguistic Relativity and Linguistic Determinism
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Projects
Objective Study Questions
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

13. Language, Identity, and Ideology I: Variations in Gender
Learning Objectives
“Gender” Versus “Sex”
Grammatical Versus Biological Gender
Do Men and Women Speak Differently?
Gender and Language: Theoretical Movements
Does Grammatical Gender Affect How We Think?
Language and Gender: Hegemony, Power, and Ideology
Language in Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Subcultures
Some Current Thoughts on Language and Gender Differences
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Projects
Objective Study Questions
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

14. Language, Identity, and Ideology II: Variations in Class, “Race,” Ethnicity, and Nationality
Learning Objectives
Language, Social Class, and Identity
Language, “Race,” and Ethnicity
Language and Nationality
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Projects
Objective Study Questions
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

15. The Linguistic Anthropology of a Globalized and Digitalized World
Learning Objectives
Language Planning
Literacy, Writing, and Education
Intercultural Communication
Always On: New Literacies and Language in an Online Global World
Ethical Questions and Standards of Conduct
Summary and Conclusions
Resource Manual and Study Guide
Questions for Discussion
Project
Objective Study Questions
Answer Key
Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading

Glossary
Bibliography
Index

Praise for Prior Editions
Language, Culture, and Society provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamental subfields of linguistic anthropology. The rich variety of examples presented from languages spoken all over the globe allows students to enter the world of working linguistic anthropologists.” —Marilyn S. Manley, Rowan University

Language, Culture, and Society is a welcoming text regardless of the reader’s background in linguistic anthropology. Material that is significant in scope and depth is masterfully rendered in digestible yet substantive elements. There is an art to maintaining conceptual rigor while deftly delivering profound ideas in readily grasped writing—an art that Salzmann, Stanlaw, and Adachi possess in great amounts.” —William L. Alexander, University of North Carolina Wilmington

“A major introduction and overview to the (reborn) field of linguistic anthropology. The book is systematic and very accessible. It covers most of what is relevant in the field, for which it certainly is to be highly recommended.” —Applied Linguistics

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